18 August 2014

Karakteristike gojaznosti

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Ljudski organizam je izuzetno složen mehanizam u kojem se odvijaju složeni procesi, zanovani na ravnoteži hranom unesenih materijala i njihovom sagorevanju.
Gojaznost je zvanično uvrštena u spisak Svetske zdravstvene organizacije kao najraširenija bolest metabolizma. Ona predstavlja problem u oko 80% slučajeva današnje svetske populacije i veoma se negativno odražava na kompletno zdravstveno stanje čoveka, a posebno na njegov kardiovaskularni sistem i lokomotorni aparat. Svaku gojaznu osobu bi trebalo posmatrati kao potencijalnog dijabetičara, jer je kod njih pojava šećerne boolesti četiri puta veća. Problem gojaznosti, kao faktor zdravstvenog rizika spada u grupu najozbiljnijih koje je Svetska zdravstvena organizacija svrstala uz maligna oboljenja, alkoholozam, pušenje, povišeni krvi pritisak itd.


Gojaznost se može podeliti u dve osnovne grupe:

 
   
   
Primarna gojaznost
Uzrokovana povećanim unošenjem hranljivih materijala
Sekundarna gojaznost
Nastaje kao posledica oboljenja štitaste i nadbubrežne žlezde, hipotalamusa, poremećja funkcije polnih žlezda i dr.
 
Mogućnost delovanja na uzroke koji su pomenuti u ove dve grupe, u današnjim uslovma življenja realana i pristupačna velikom broju osoba, pa se sve veća pažnja poklanja u cilju rešavanja ovog problema. Pre svega, neophodno je postaviti željeni cilj i napraviti adekvatan program pri čemu bi trebalo imati u vidu: pol, starost, aktivnosti u toku 24sata, proceniti dnevne energetske potrebe organizma, proceniti psihofizičke sposobnosti i mogućnosti za realizaciju takvog programa. U tom smislu rešenje bi trebalo tražiti u redukciji unosa hranljivih materija, povećanju utroška energije kroz pokret i veću fizičku aktivnost, primeni proverenih i zdravstveni ispravnih dijetetskih preparata ili, globalno posmatrano, primeni higijensko dijetetskog režima života. Svako smanjenje telesne težine znači rasterećenje lokomotornog aparata a problem takve vrste su sve više prisutni u smislu deformiteta na kičmenom stubu, zglobovima kukova, kolane, skočnim zglobovima kao i na stopalima. Pored zdravstvenog, gojaznost predstavlja i estetski problem sa svim svojim posledicama na socijalnom planu.
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